Selection of Site
: In selecting a site for the factory buildings of the proposed project, among other things, the following aspects should be taken into consideration:
- The covered area of factory buildings and other ancillary structures such as warehouses and Workshops.
- Internal roads, parking areas, foot paths, loading and unloading space, and garden area.
- Fire gap and fire escape routes.
- Space and locations within the site for installation such as gas cylinders, transformers, water tanks, under ground water sumps, treatment plants, storm water drains etc.
Factory Building and Services: All buildings and services shall be designed and constructed in accordance with accepted Codes of Practice and in conformity with the current Factories Rules.
Architectural Appearance and Quality: The building and other structures shall be aesthetically pleasing and of a high standard acceptable. Major building components, type of finishes, (such as external finishes of walls), electrical fans, extractors, blowers, doors, windows, louvers, lighting points, air conditioners (if any) shall be clearly indicated in the building plans.
Final Ground and Floor Levels: Final ground and floor levels of the factory must be fixed in relation to the surrounding layout of the land, adjoining road levels, invert levels and locations of the nearest manholes in order to ensure proper surface water drainage and sewage disposal.
Floor Space: No factory shall be over crowded so as to cause risk or injury to the workers. The space requirement should be decided upon taking into consideration the numbers and size of machinery that would be installed, tables/work benches, bins and other equipment that need to be accommodated in the production areas pathways, emergency exits and temporary storage requirements. The total covered area should take into account the production area required, storage space, office, canteen, toilets, service areas, first aid room, fire escape routes, maintenance space, tool rooms, workshops, boiler room, treatment plants, etc. The amount of work space allowed for each worker should not be less than 400 cu. ft. No space over a height of 14 ft. from the floor shall be taken into account when calculating this cubic space.
Storeyed Buildings: In storeyed factory buildings, in addition to the main stairway leading to the working area, an additional stairway shall be provided which would serve as an escape route in case of fire. All stairways should be provided with railings and the top railing should not be less than 90 cm high. The completed structure consisting of anchor posts and railings should be of solid construction and should be capable of withstanding a point load of at least 90 kgs applied in any direction at any point on the top rail.
Guarding of wall openings, open-side floors, platforms and catwalks: All wall openings, open-side floors, platforms and catwalks should be suitably guarded by means of railing or fencing. Where there is a hazard of material falling from open-side floors, platforms ect., suitable protective measures should be adopted by the provision of toe-boards or screens of solid construction.
Boundary walls: The boundary walls along the perimeter of the side at the gate shall be 6 ft. high. The minimum width of the gate should be 6m. Prior approval should be obtained for location of the gate. Factories which are located in industrial zones, no boundary walls are permitted facing internal roads. Chain link fencing is recommended for such locations. For other boundaries, masonry walls are permitted.
Landscaping: The premises and road frontage should be well landscaped. As many of the existing trees as possible should be preserved and only those which need to be removed for buildings should be felled.
Parking Areas and Access: Adequate parking areas and suitable access road should be provided within the site, so as to avoid parking of vehicles on the highway.
Security Lights: The Factory compound shall be provided with adequate security lights.
Exit Doors: Minimum of two exit doors in every floor or every room should be provided.
Electrical Installations: All electrical installations shall be carried out to the satisfaction of the Electricity Board.
Miscellaneous: During the planning stages due consideration should be given to the expansion programs of the project so that at later stages when the layouts are modified or the work force is increased changes required and the provision of amenities to the increased work force do not become problematic.
Sanitation & Health Requirements
- Ventilation and Thermal Comfort: Effective and suitable provisions shall be made for securing and maintaining adequate ventilation in each work room by the circulation of fresh air. The minimum fresh air required in a work room where there are no contaminants to be removed from air shall be such to effect at least three air changes per hour. Where natural ventilation through windows and other openings is found to be inadequate, mechanical ventilation either by exhaust of air or by positive ventilation or a combination of these two shall be provided. In the case of industrial buildings wider than 70 ft. ventilation may be augmented by roof ventilation. Where the desired temperatures and humidities cannot be obtained by mere ventilation, air conditioning should be resorted to. Air movement and distribution may be achieved by re-circulation of the inside and/or out side air by installing an adequate number of fans/blowers. The rate of air movement in the vicinity of workers shall be such as to give reasonable comfort without objectionable draughts. Effective provision shall also be made for maintaining a reasonable temperature in each work room. The following methods are recommended for controlling temperature.
Isolation: Locate heat producing equipment such as furnaces so as to expose only a small number of workers to the hot environment. Where possible, enclose the work areas and supply conditioned air to enclosures.
Insulation: Insulation of the roof and providing false ceiling would be very effective in controlling heat. Good result could also be achieved by painting roof sheets with heat reflective shades. In addition, hot surfaces of equipment such as pipes and vessels may also be insulated to reduce heat absorption / radiation.
- Sanitary Convenience: Adequate and separated sanitary conveniences shall be made available for workers of either sex with water accessible on tap. Where persons of both sexes are employees, sanitary conveniences for each sex shall be so screened, so as to provide adequate privacy.
The minimum requirement is one sanitary convenience for every 25 workers (male or female). However, in the case of any premises where the number of males employed exceeds 100, sufficient urinal accommodation should also be provided on the basis of one urinal for every 40 males.
Sanitary conveniences should have adequate ventilation and lighting. Large windows and or exhaust fans should be provided in passages and in open areas. Narrow, dark, ill-ventilated passages should be avoided.
- Water Supply:
Water Storage: In every factory a suitable sump and an overhead water tank should be constructed taking into consideration the total daily requirement of water for domestic use as well as processes, if any. The total capacity of the sump and the overhead tank should not be less than one day’s requirement. The sump shall be located so that water could be drawn from sump for fire fighting if required. Sump shall be designed in such a way as to facilitate cleaning and inspection. If located on the fire gap the design of the sump should cater for passage of heavy vehicles over sump.
Washing Facilities: Separate washing facilities shall be provided for male and female workers. The minimum requirement is one wash basin for every 20 persons. Where troughs are provided they shall be tiled and the width shall be more than 2ft. Washing areas provided for female workers should be enclosed or screened so that the interior is not visible from any place where persons of the other sex work. In addition to the above, taking into consideration the nature of operation in the factory, a sufficient number of showers shall be provided for the use of employees. Showers for the use of female workers shall be enclosed.
Lighting: Provision shall be made for securing and maintaining adequate lighting whether natural or artificial in every part of the factory where persons are working. In areas where persons are regularly employed the intensity of illumination shall not be less than 400 lux (40 ft. candles) at the height of 3ft. from the floor. In other parts of the factory over which persons employed pass, the intensity shall not be less than 50 lux (5ft. candles). The above are the minimum requirements. For operations that need sustained attention, higher illumination should be provided. The following table gives the recommended illumination levels for certain operations :- Workshop – 400 lux, Stores – 50 lux. Lighting should be provided in such a manner as to avoid glare.
- Pollution Control:
Suitable action shall be taken to eliminate any pollution created as a result of the factory process, use of boilers, discharge of waste, effluents etc. Suitable action shall be taken to submit a flow sheet showing the various steps of the production processes in broad outline indicating the points of origin of liquid and solid wastes.
Effluents: Effluents shall confirm to the suggested tolerance limits for effluents discharged into the common sewer, a copy of which may be obtained from the Environment Department of the Board. Intended in-house treatment facilities to treat the effluents to conform to the above standards shall be outlined and detailed drawings of these shall be submitted to the Board. Effluents shall be collected into a leak proof storage tank the capacity of which would be adequate to hold at least one half day’s effluent generated from the production process before discharging to the common sewer.
Noise: Due consideration shall be given to install noise generating machinery on resilient foundations to reduce the vibration and noise generated by them. In addition they may be enclosed using suitable material to isolate the machinery so as to reduce the spread of noise to adjoining areas.
Smoke Emission: Details of civil engineering aspects, locations, intended heights of locations, intended heights of chimney/stacks for the boilers furnaces using fossil fuels and the quantities of fuel to be used shall be forwarded to the Board.
Solid Waste Disposal: Suitable arrangements should be made to collect and dispose of solid waste generated in the factory, and solid waste should not be burnt within the factory premises under any circumstances.
Dust, Fumes & Vapour: Provision should be made for local exhaust ventilation system for the removal of any dust, fumes or vapor produced during any process in the factory.
Miscellaneous: In premises where there is oil spillage, such areas should be cemented and provided with drains and oil traps.
- Fire Fighting: Adequate precautions should be taken to minimize the risk of fire within and outside the factory buildings.
Fire Gap: No building or other structure including any projection shall be built within a distance of 20 ft. from any of the boundary walls except with the prior approval of the Board. This passage shall be motorable right round.
Fire Extinguishers: Within the factory buildings, an adequate number of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting equipment shall be made available. In this regard, the Chief Fire Officer of the fire Department of the Municipal Council or any other specialist agency may be consulted.
Fire Escape: The factory buildings should have an adequate number of fire escape/exits. All doors of the factory building should open outwards.
Handling & Storing of Explosives: Where explosives and inflammable dust, gas or vapor substances are involved, adequate precautions should be taken, under expert advice, regarding their storage and handling.
- Lightning Protection: A suitable lightning protection system should be provided.
: The overall design and the preparation of plans should be carried out under the supervision of a qualified consultant. Civil Engineering drawings should be signed by a Chartered/Civil/Structural Engineer or Chartered Architect. Electrical and Mechanical Drawings should also be signed by a Chartered Electrical Engineer/Chartered Mechanical Engineer. The name, address and qualifications of the Engineer/Architect should be indicated in the plan.
Plans and specification of all buildings and other civil structures, mechanical and electrical installations should be submitted to Engineering Approvals Department for approval before construction activity commences. For all buildings to be located outside the Export Processing Zones the architectural drawings, duly approved by the relevant local authority should be submitted to the Engineering Approvals Department for approval.
- Architectural Plans: Architectural plans should consists of site plan drawn to an appropriate scale, plans, sections, and elevations drawn to 1:100 or 1:200, with schedule of doors/windows and foundation details. The plan should indicate all functional areas within the building or building complex. The sections should depict all the levels and different floor to ceiling heights. Number of sets required to be submitted with regard to factory projects is five and for other projects such as Housing, Hotels, Hospitals etc. is three.
- Service Plan: This plan should indicate the position of sewers, water lines, surface drains, sump and overhead tank, water taps, location of fire hydrants and fire extinguishers, parking areas, and the location of boilers, if any. Structures required for effluent treatment may also be included in this plan.
- Electrical Drawings: This should indicate the proposed wiring of the building, electrical circuits, location of switch gear and their ratings, conduits, cables, size of conductors etc.